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英语词汇学复习要点不过就难啊).doc

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1.Motivation 分类:onomatopoeic motivation拟声理据, morphological motivation 形态理据 , semantic motivation语义理据, etymological motivation 词源理据. Types of meaning:grammatical ~ & lexical ~; conceptual ~& associative ~(connotative~, stylistic~, affective ~, collocative ~,) Associative meaning : 1) associative meaning is the secondary meaning supplemented to the conceptual meaning. 2)It differs from the conceptual meaning in that it is open-ended and indeterminated. 3)It is liable to the influence of such factors as culture , experience, religion, geographical region, class background,education, etc. 4)Associative meaning comprises four types : connotative, stylistic, affective, and collocative. 3. Polysemy is a common feature peculiar to all natural language that one word has two or more senses or meanings. Diachronic approach is an approach to polysemy which studies how a word derived its different meanings from its primary meaning in the course of time. 同形同音异义关系 Homonymy is one of the features of words that a word is different in meaning from another, but either identical both in sound and spelling or identical only in sound or spelling with the other Homonyms generally fall into three classes: perfect homonyms (same name); homographs (same spelling) and homophones (some sound). Perfect homonyms are those words identical both in sound and spelling, but different in meaning, e.g. bear /bea/ (n) a large heavy animal; bear /bea/ (v) to put up with. Homographs are the words identical only in spelling but different in sound and meaning, e.g. saw / / (v) to scatter seeds; sow /sau/ (n) female adult pig. Homophones refer to the words identical only in sound but different in spelling and meaning, e.g. dear /dia/ (n) a loved person; deer /dia/ (n) a kind of animal. 5. 同形同音异义词与多义词的区别 Perfect homonyms and polysemants are fully identical with regard to spelling and pronunciation. This creates the problem of differentiation. The fundamental difference between homonyms and polysemants lies in the fact that the former refers to different words which happen to share the same form and the latter is the one and same word which has several distinguishable meanings. One important criterion is to see their etymology, i.e. homonyms are from different sources whereas a polysemant is from the same source which has acquired different meanings in the course of development. The second principal consideration is semantic relatedness. The various meanings of a polysemant are correlated and connected to one central meaning to a greater or lesser degree, e. g. neck (See 6.1 Polysemy) . On the other hand, meanings of different homonyms have nothing to do with one another. In dictionaries, a polysemant has its meanings all listed under one headword whereas homonyms are listed as separate entries. 6. 同义关系Synonyms are words which share the same or nearly the same meaning with each other but different in sound and spelling. There are absolute synonyms and relative synonyms which result from borrowing, dialects and regional English, figurative and euphemistic use of words, coincidence with idiomatic expressions. There exists the difference between or among synonyms in terms of their denotation, connotation or application. Absolute synonyms or complete synonyms are words which are identical in meaning in all its aspects. Relative synonyms or near-synonyms are similar or nearly the same in denotation, but embrace different shades of meaning or different degrees of a given quality.Sources of Synonyms 1) Borrowing 2)Dialects and regional English 3) Figurative and euphemistic use of words 4) Coincidence with idiomatic expressions 如何区分同义词?1Difference in denotation2 Difference in connotation 3 Difference in applicationWhat are the characteristics of antonyms?1) Antonyms are classified on the basis of semantic opposition 2) A word which has more than one meaning can have more than one antonym. 3) Antonyms differ in semantic inclusion. 4) Contrary terms are gradable antonyms, differing in degree of intenisty, so each has its own corresponding opposite. 上下义关系:Hyponymy deals with the relationship of semantic inclusion. That is, the meaning of a more specific word is included in that of another more general word. Superordinates refer to some general words; subordinates denote those more specific words. Hyponymy can be described in terms of tree-like graphs, with higher-order superordinates above the lower subordinates. But their status either as superordinate or subordinate is relative to other terms. For example, horse, dog, pig are subordinates in relation to animal, but superordinates of mare, hound and boar, Animal itself becomes a subordinate of creature. And creature in turn becomes 词义变化的种类There are five types of meaning, changes: extension, narrowing, degradation, elevation, and transfer among which extension and narrowing are the most common. Changes in meaning can be accounted for from extra-linguistic factors (historical reason, class reason, and psychological reason) and intra-linguistic factors (shortening, the influx of borrowing, and analogy).词义的扩大 Extension is a process by which a word with a specialized sense is generalized to cover a broader or less 词义的缩小Narrowing is a process by which a word of wider meaning acquires a specialized sense;词义的升格Elevation is a process by which a word moves from a derogatory or neutral sense to a neutral and/or appreciative sense;词义的降格Degradation is a process by which a word of reputation slides into a pejorative use,;词义的转移Transfer is a process by which a word denoting one thing changes to refer to a different but related thing. Paper serves as an example. This word formerly denoted an African plant papyrus, which was once used to make paper. In modern times, paper is made from rags, wood, straw and the like, but the product has retained the same name. There is associated transfer. There are other kinds of transfer, such as, concrete to abstract, abstract to concrete and transfer of sensation. 语境的种类:非语言语境。

从介词的语法特性看为什么要学英语词汇学,介词可以修饰限制名词,如果不能判定一个词语是否是介词,可以在这个词语的后面加名词。 a、在语法功能上能充任各种语法成分,最普遍的是作状语和定语为什么要学英语词汇学,修饰动词,形容词和名词。地理名词称谓及其概念解释自然地理是研究自然地理环境的组成、结构、功能、动态及其空间分异规律的学科,是地理学的一个重要分支学科.人类的地理知识起源于远古时代。

1) A word is a minimal free form of a language;2) A sound unity or a given sound ;3) a unit of meaning;4) a form that can function alone in a sentence.以上词的四个特点也就是词的名词解释 词的分类(classification of a word)词根据发音可以分为哪两种词?或者说词根据拼写可以分为哪两类词1) simple words 2) complex words单音节词例子:e.g. Man and fine are simple多音节词例子:e.g. Management, misfortune, blackmailmanagement 可以次划分为manage 和 –ment misfortune 可以次划分为mis- 和 fortuneblackmail 次划分为black 和 mail What is the relationship between sound and meaning? 1)There is ‘no logical relationship between the sound and actual thing.e.g. dog. Cat 2)The relationship between them is conventional. 3) In different languages the same concept can be represented by different sounds. 7.What is relationship between sound and form?The written form of a natural language is the written record of the oral form. Naturally the written form should agree with the oral form, such as English language.This is fairly true of English in its earliest stage i.e. Old EnglishWith the development of the language, more and more differences occur between the two. 8.What are the great changes that causes illogical relationship or irregularity between sound and form?The internal reason for this is that the English alphabet was adopted from the Romans, which does not have a separate letter tore present each sound in the language so that some letters must do double duty or work together in combination.Another reason is that the pronunciation has changed more rapidly than spelling over the years, and in some cases the two have drawn far apart.A third reason is that some of the differences were created by the early scribes.Finally comes the borrowing, which is an important channel of enriching the English vocabulary. 要记住以上四句话中的关键词: 1) influenced by Romans2) Pronunciation changed3) early scribes4) borrowing 9.你能不能举出外来语对英语发音,拼写造成不一致的例子有哪些?e.g. stimulus (L) ,fiesta (Sp) ,eureka (Gr), kimono (Jap)外来语对英语造成的最大的影响就是‘sound and form ’不一致。

What is vocabulary? Vocabulary refers to the total number of the words in a language, but it can stand for all the words used in a particular historical period. Vocabulary also refers to all the words of a given dialect, given book, a given discipline and the words possessed by an individual person. 11.What is the classification of words? How to classify words in linguistics? Three criteria :1) By use of frequency 2) By notion 3) By origin By use of frequency 可划分为:1) The basic word stock 2) Nonbasic word vocabulary By notion 可划分为:1) Content word2) Functional word Content words are also known as notional words . (Content words 的别称)Functional words are also known as empty words, or form words. (Functional words 的别称)Functional words possesses a characteristic of basic word stock, i.e. stability What are the characteristics of basic word stock?All national character2) Stability3) Productivity4) Polysemy5) Collocability要把握住‘All national character’词,就是和我们日常生活息息相关的,最普通词Which constitutes the larger number among English vocabulary, content or functional words ? Answer : Content words What is native words? Answer : (1) By origin, English words can be classified into native words and borrowed words.(2) Native words are words brought to Britain in the fifth century by the German tribes: the Angles, the Saxons, and the Jutes, thus know as Anglo-Saxon words. (3) Words of Anglo-Saxon origin are small in number ,amounting to roughly 50,000 to 60,000, but they form the mainstream of the basic word stock and stand at the core of the language 14.什么叫borrowed words? Answer: (1) words taken over from foreign languages are know as borrowed words or loan words or borrowings in simple terms.(2) It is estimated that English borrowings constitute 80 percent of the modern English vocabulary (3) The English language has vast debts .In any dictionary some 80% of the entries are borrowed. 第二章: The Indo-European Language Family It is assumed that the world has approximately 3,000(some put it5,000)languages ,which can be grouped into roughly 300 language families on the basis of similarities in their basic word stock and grammar . ‘Indo-European’ 两大分支:1.Eastern set 2.Western set Eastern set: Balto-Slavic, Indo-Iranian, Armenian and Albanian Western set : Celtic, Italic , Hellenic, Germanic. In the western Set, Greek is the modern language derived from Hellenic. Celtic :Scottish, Irish, Welsh, Breton The five Romance languages, namely ,Portuguese, Spanish, French, Italian , Rumanian all belong to the Italic. The Germanic family consists of the four Northern European Languages: Norwegian ,Icelandic, Danish and Swedish ,which are generally known as Scandinavian languages. Then there is German, Dutch ,Flemish and English. With Vikings’ invasion, many Scandinavian words came into the English language. It is estimated that at least 900 words of Scandinavian origin have survived in modern English. Old English has a vocabulary of about 50,000 to 60,000 words. It was a highly inflected language just like modern German. 2. Modern English began with the establishment of printing in England 古英语最大的模糊性的概念来自于 (scripts )古英语正因为出现印刷术才打破了 ( early scripts)Sound and form 真正达到统一是在什么时期?.Sound and form reached their concord in ( Modern English period )如果从词汇变化的角度而言,Modern English 又可以细划分为 early period ,modern period. 现代英语早期阶段属于哪一种文化现象的发展时期 Early modern English appeared in the Renaissance Modern English period 有什么样的外来语的进入?The Latin words swarmed into English in early modern English period现代英语时期,英语词汇大量丰富还有另外一个原因是 (colonization)The richness of Modern English in vocabulary also arises from (Colonization )The English language has evolved from a synthetic language to the present analytic language 4.Three main sources of new words :The rapid development of modern science and technology 2)Social, economic and political changes;3)The influence of other cultures and language 5. Modes of Vocabulary Development 1)creation 2) semantic change 3) borrowing2)Semantic change (还包括外来词的Semantic loans )Elevation, degradation, extension, narrowing, transfer 外来词可以被称作borrowed words , 因此borrowed words are also known as loaned words .恢复古英语的用词是美国英语的一大特色Reviving archaic or obsolete words also contributes to the growth of English vocabulary though quite insignificant. This is especially true of American English.6. 英语从synthetic language 发展到present analytical language 是在英语的哪一个阶段完成的?答案:Modern English period 在英语发展过程 在哪个阶段出现三语鼎立的现象?French, Latin, English in Middle English period Old English 和 Middle English 最大的striking distinction 存在于哪一个方面?答案:Old English was a language of full endings, Middle English was one of leveled endings. 文艺复兴时期,哪两种文化得到了复兴,这对英语词汇的丰富具有什么样的影响?答案:Greek , Roman cultur10.某些希腊词被引入到了英语是在什么阶段?答案:Modern English 第三章The smallest unit in the English language refers to (morphemes) 2.The minimal free form in the English language refers to (word) 3.Morphemes : The minimal meaningful units in a language are known as morphemes. In other words, the morphemes is the smallest functioning unit in composition of words 4.Allomorphs : The alternative morphs are known as allomorphs, e.g.the morpheme of plurality {-s} has a number of allomorphs in different sound context, e.g. in cats in bags, matches It can be realized by the change of an internal vowel as in foot-feet, man-men, goose-geese or by zero morphs as in deer-deer, fish-fish5. what are the types of morphemes ?答案:Free morphemes and bound morphemes 。

Free morphemes : 1) Free morphemes are independent of other morphemes and are considered to be free.2) These morphemes have complete meanings in themselves and can be used as free grammatical units in sentences. 3) They are identical with root words, as each of them consists of a single free rootwords ,as each of them consists of a single free root 4) free morphemes are free roots. bound morphemes: 1) Morphemes which cannot occur as separate words are bound.. 2) They are bound to other morphemes to form words. 3) Bound morphemes include two types: bound root and affix affix 分为两类: inflectional and derivational affixes. Inflectional affixes : Affixes attached to the end of words to indicate grammatical relationships are inflectional, thus known as inflectional morphemes. Derivational affixes: 1)derivational affixes are affixes added to other morphemes to create now words.2) Derivational affixes can be further divided into prefixes and suffixes.root : 1) a root is the basic form of a word which cannot be further analyzed without total loss of identity.2) the root, whether free or bound, generally carries the main component of meaning in a word3) a ’root is that part of a word form that remains when all inflectional and derivational affixes have been removedstem : 1) a stem may consist of a single root morpheme as in iron or of two root morphemes as in a compound like handcuff.2) It can be a root morpheme plus one or more affixational morphemes as in mouthful, underestimate. 3) Therefore, a stem can be defined as a form to which affixes of any kind can be added. : 在英语中,主要的构词法分为哪几种?答案:有七种:1) Affixation 2) Compounding 3) conversion 4) shortening 5) clipping 6) acronymy 7) blending有三种最常用: affixation , compounding and conversion由专有名词变为普通名词是词义变化的哪一种?答案:Extension 由普通名词变为专有名词是词义变化的哪一种模式?答案:Narrowing Affixation 又被称为什么? 它分为哪两类?答案:Affixation is also known as derivation Affixation falls into two subclasses : prefixation and suffixation 要点: 有哪些前缀属于什么样的类别:a-, non, ir : negative prefixes de- , dis- ( 既属于negative , 也属于reversative prefixes ) mal-, pseudo-, mis- : pejorative prefixes super , sur-, extra : prefixes of degree or size anti-, contra-, counter-, pro- : prefixes of orientation and attitude trans-, fore- tele- : locative prefixes fore-, post- : prefixes of time and order bi-, uni-, semi- : number prefixes pan-, vice - : miscellaneous prefixes suffixation : 1. Noun suffixes 1) Denominal nouns 2) Deverbal nouns3) De-adjective nouns: ity, -ness, 4) Noun and adjective suffixes注意Compounding, acoronymy , blending , conversion , clipping 的名词解释. 复合词分为哪三类: 1)solid 2) hyphenated 3) open what are the characteristics of compounds ?What are the difference between compounds and free phrases ?答案:1) phonetic features2) Semantic features3) Grammatical features 最常见的三种词性 : 1) Noun compound 2) Adjective compounds 3) verb compounds 在名词性复合词中有哪几种有多产性, 哪两种不具有多产性? 在形容性复合词当中, 哪三类有多产性? 动词性复合词是靠哪两种方法复合在一起的? 名词解释:Conversion Conversion is the formation of new words by converting words of one class to another class. Functional shift = conversion Zero-derivation ( 选择或填空要点)Adjective to noun : (1) full conversion (2) partial conversion 形容词转为动词分为哪两类?答案:由Adjective to verbs : (1) Transitive (2) Intransitive ‘blending’ 分为哪四类合成词?1. head + tail 2. head + head 3. head + word 4. word + tail 绝大多数blending 都是什么词性?答案:nouns,The overwhelming majority of blends are nouns; very few are verbs and adjectives are even fewer. 截短法clipping 分为哪四类?答案:There are four common types of clipping :1) Front clipping2) Back clipping3) Front and back clipping4) Phrase clipping要注意clipping 的例子有一个特殊变化:fridge ( refrigerator 截短之后在i, g 中间加一个d ) , 还有拼写发生变化,比如说:coke ( coca cola) 什么是acronymy?Acronymy is the process of forming new words by joining the initial letters of ne ames of social and political organizations or special noun phrases and technical terms Acronymy 包含两类:1) initialisms (不发音)e.g. BBC, VOA, TB2) acronyms (形成新的发音)e.g. CORE, TEFL Words from proper names 有四大类:1. Names of people e.g. bobby : Names of people2. Names of places e.g. champagne, rugby 3. Names of books e.g. utopia 4. Tradenames e.g. cabal 以下的词采用哪种构词法? e.g. diagnosis ---?diagnose : (先有诊断的名词,后有了诊断的动词,这种构词被称作) backformation bloomers (它的构词法满足哪一种词法): 属于Words from proper names 中的Names of people VJ-day :(这种构词法是由哪一种构成的)属于Initialisms 中的Acronyms Pop: (采用哪一种构词法构成的) : clipping Sitcom : blending FORTRAN : head + head Bath (名词) ----- bathe ( 动词) Bath 和 bathe 存在一种什么关系? ( Conversion )重点句:Conversion is also known as functional shift. Noun + v-ing, 这类词构成的词是什么词 ?答案:compounding Record-breaking , 它是属于复合法中的哪一种?答案:Adjectives compounds 请说出Adjectives compounds 中多产性强的有几类?答有三类1) n + v-ing 2) n + a3) n + v-ed up-bringing 是属于哪一类构词法构成的词?答案:noun compounds (adv + v-ing ) 复合词与自由短语的最大的区别是什么?答案:区别也就是复合词的特点:1) Phonetic features2) Semantic features3) Grammatical featuresred meat, green horn,它们是复合词的哪一个特点构成的词?答案 :Semantic features (也就是从构词上推不出它的涵义) Compounding又被称作什么法?答案:composition 由compounding 或composition 构成的词被称作什么?答案:compounds 复合词分为几类?分别举例加以说明?答案:分为三类:solid, hyphenated, opensolid : blackmail , blackmarkethyphenated: brother-in-law, open : green horn , green hand 当形容词转为动词时分为几类:Adjectives to verbs答案:有三类:1) Both transitive and intransitive 2) Only transitive 3) Only intransitive 由人的行为所造成的结果进行转类之后,转成了什么词性?答案:verb to noun e.g. catch 形容词可不可以转类,转成名词分为几个类别?答案:分为两类:1) full conversion e.g. black , white 2) partial conversion e.g. the rich , the poor 名词再变成名词分为几类?分别举例说明?答案:1) Concrete 2) abstract e.g. host : (可加-ess 变成具体名词)friend : (加-ship 可变成抽象名词)A word is unity of sound and meaning ( true or false )答案:true ( 可从word 的四个特点看出) 判断对错:1.Conversion means transfer of a word from one class to anther . (true or false )答案:true 2. The relationship between a word symbol and its meaning is mostly arbitrary and conventional.(答案:true 3.a word used in different contexts may contrast with different antonyms .(true or false)答案:true 4. an allomorph is any of the variant forms of morphemes. (true or false )答题: false A word which has more than one meaning can have more than one antonym. E.g. fast (fast 在不同的语境中对应着不同的概念) Chinese is our native language, but we can not say the Chinese is our ? .a)mother tongue b) first language c) mother language d) official language答案:C)mother language ( 不存在的一种说法) 以下的哪一个词 is not an expression used by American? tube B) bar C) Mailbox D) Congress答案:tube ( 只有英国人把地铁叫tube , 美国人把它叫作subway, underground ) ‘smog’它是‘smoke , fog’ 合在一起形成的词,它是采用了下面哪一种构词法?A) clipping B ) compounding C) blending D) backformation答案: C ) blending 以下的词哪些属于:A)simple word B) compound word C) derived word D) shortened form.e.g. goldmine (compound word )bike ( shortened form )process (derived word : cess 是一个不可分割的bound root,pro 它是一个前缀)supermarket ( derived word )language ( simple word )driver ( derived word )dorm ( shortened form, clipping )modernize ( derivation )blackboard ( compound )bus ( shortened form ) (omnibus ) 第五章:Word Meaning The meanings of ‘Meaning’ 指的是哪三个层次的内容?意义中的含义的三个层次的划分: What are the meanings of ‘Meaning’?1) Reference (有reference 的词必然具有sense, 也必然具有Concept ) 2) Concept( 能够形成Concept 的词必然有reference ) 3) Sense (有sense 的词未必具有concept , 也未必具有reference) (Conjunction , prepositions, adverbs, 它们都是具有sense 的词,但是未必具有reference , 也未必具有concept, 例如:if, but, probably : 它们有sense, 但没有concept )What is the relationship between the reference and the thing outside the language?(等同于:What is relationship between sound and form )答: Arbitrary and conventional Concept : 1. Meaning and concept are closely connected but not identical .They are both related directly to referents and are notions of the words but belong to different categories.2. Concept, which is beyond language, is the result of human cognition, reflecting the objective world in the human mind . 3. Concept is universal to all men alike regardless of culture, race, language and so on. 4. a concept can have as many referring expressions as there are languages in the world. Sense: 1. ‘ sense’ denotes the relationships inside the language. ‘ The sense of an expression is its place in a system of semantic relationships with other expressions in the language.’ 2. Since the sense of an expression is not a thing, it is often difficult to say what sort of identity it is. It is also an abstraction. *3. Every word that has meaning has sense (not every word has reference) What are the type of motivation? 1) Onomatopoeic motivation 2) Morphological Motivation 3) Semantic Motivation 4) Etymological Motivation。

some of the words when edited with prefixes and suffixes, it will become another new word, either new in meaning or new in sense, this motivation is called ( morphological motivation ) Compounds are totally different in the meaning before it was carried out with different elements, so the meaning of a compound can not be deduced from component constituted this compound ,this motivation is called ( morphological motivation ) pen in old English , refers to the feather, but with the development of technology, fountain was invented , but the name of this material was kept up to this day, people still used the pen to refer to writting tool, this motivation is called (etymological motivation) Conceptual meaning also know as (denotative meaning ) laconic answer (简短回答), laconic 的形成是属于哪一种理据 (etymological motivation) pingpong ball , cuckoo 是靠哪一种理据形成的新词?答案: Onomatopoeic Motivation 问题:at the foot of mountain, the mouth of river, 此时采用了哪一种理据构成?答案: Semanticmovtivation 论述题: 1. What are the types of motivation? 2. What are the types of meaning? 按大的分支来分分为: (1)grammatical meaning (2)Lexical meaning 分析题:*’The dog is chasing a cat’, analyze the sentence based on grammatical meaning. Lexical meaning itself has two components: conceptual meaning and associative meaning.(语法意义上分析没考过, 但从词汇意义上分析考过)语法意义指一个词的词性, 句中充当的成份, 句子的时态,单复数形式等.1)’Dog, cat’ are nouns, and ’chase’ is transitive verb.2) The sentence is used in present continuous tense.3) ’The dog, a cat’ are singular form. 问题:The pen is mightier than sword? 请从语法意义的角度上分析这句话?Both ’pen and sword’ are nouns. ’mightier’ is an adjective, and ’than’ is preposition.The sentence is in simple present tense.这是现在时中采用的哪一种语法结构?’Mightier than’ is comparative degree.’pen and sword’ are in singular form.’The pen’ is subject, and ’sword’ functions as an object to preposition ’than’.’mightier’ is predictive重点名词解释: Conceptual meaning:1) Conceptual meaning (also known as denotative meaning) is the meaning given in the dictionary and forms the core of word-meaning. 2) Being constant and relatively stable, conceptual meaning forms the basis for communiation as the same word has the same conceptual meaing to all the speakers of the same languageAssociative meaning :(一定要把它的四种分支答上)1) associative meaning is the secondary meaning supplemented to the conceptual meaning. 2)It differs from the conceptual meaning in that it is open-ended and indeterminated. 3)It is liable to the influence of such factors as culture , experience, religion, geographical region, class background,education, etc. 4)Associative meaning comprises four types : connotative, stylistic, affective, and collocative. 问题: Connotative meaning is not the same to everybody, every situation and every time, analyze the statement?答案: e.g. A child is prejudiced against, often jeered at, beaten or scolded at home, then home to his is nothing but ’ a hell’, hence unfavourable connotatitions,问题: 某些贬义词是不是任何时候都是贬义词?答案:e.g. A phrase like ’son of a *****’ which normally has an associative meaning of crude vulgarity may convey the connotation of ’friendliness’ and ’intimacy’ used between two close friends when they meet after some prolonged period of time.问题:Stylistic meaning 根据字典上的划分有几种划分?根据The Five Clocks 划分,有几种划分?答案:In some dictionaries, stylistic features are clearly marked as ’formal’, ’informal’, ’literary’, ’archaic’, slang’. Martin Joos in his book The Five Clocks suggests five degrees of formality: ’frozen’, ’formal’, ’consultative’, ’casual’ and ’intimate’.问题:在日常生活中,人们把文体只简单地划分为哪三类?答案:1)formal 2)neutral 3) informal注意:要把书中89页中例子[22][23]分析要记好.在情感意义affective meaning, 考试往往要落脚在affective meaning 的两个分类:(年年affective meaning 例子都考) (1) appreciative meaning (2) pejorative meaning Collocative meaning 中的例子要记好: pretty , handsome Green 搭配的例子记好: green on the job, green fruit , green with envy , green-eyed monster. 问题: Blackmail 从发音的角度被划分成什么词,从理据的角度被划分成什么词?答案:Complex Morphological motivation问题: 有 reference 的词必然具有sense and concept ( 正确) 有sense 的词一定具有reference.(错误) The word which have meaning does not have necessarily reference. 问题: ’Forget, forgot, forgetting , forgotten , forgets’这是从哪一个角度来界定这个词的分支?答案: Grammatical meaning 问题: ‘frozen, ‘formal’ , ‘consultative’, ‘casual’ and ‘intimate’ 这五个词是总结了什么的划分, 是根据什么的划分?答案: stylistic meaning , 是根据The Five Clocks written by Martin Joos. 问题:But in daily life , we always refer to (formal), (neutral) , (informal). 问题: ’Pretty boy, pretty woman , pretty garden, pretty garden , pretty car’,请解释这些词的意义一样不一样?如果不一样请加以理论分析?答案:Collocative meaning, when pretty is used to modify different nouns both animate and inanimate , their collocative meaning are totally different. 问题:Table tennis can be replaced by pingpong ball and the name of the bird is also called cuckoo , which can also be reused to refer to the sound of the bird , so their two words are (onomatopoeically) motivated. 问题:’Unexpected, expectation, expecting’, these three words are (morphologically) motivated. 问题: ’Hopeless, jobless, dislike’, 这三个词是靠什么motivated. ( morphologically motivated) 问题:’East or west , home is best’ and ’there is no place like home’. 这两话是使用了什么样的意义构成的?答案: Connotative meaning: Sense Relations and Semantic Field polysemy, homonymy, synonymy, antonymy and hyponymy.(五种关系的名词解释要记住) Two Approaches to Polysemy: 1) Diachronic approach2) Sychronic approach 2. Two Processes of Developmentradiation (1) radiation is a semantic process in which the primary meaning stands at the centre and the secondary



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