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英语语法直接引用和间接引用

来源:未知 作者:佚名 日期:2019-09-17 浏览:58

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间接引语

引述语言的句末符号该在引号里面还是外面,要看组成这个句子的内容确定,如果句末符号和文字一起构成了引述内容的整体,那么句末符号应该在引号里面,像第(6)中的句号就是这种情况。 引号的作用主要有: a.表示引语 b.表示特定称谓 c.表示特殊含义需要强调 d.表示否定和讽刺 引语指行文中引用他人的话。(1)引语 批复的开头通常要引述来文作为批复的依据,引述的方法有四种:第一种是结合请示的日期引述,如“×年×月×日来文收悉”。

直接引语:“I, too, will try a seventh time,”cried Bruce.

间接引语: Bruce said that he, too, would try a seventh time.

使用间接引语要注意:

1.时态要一致: 如果主句谓语(例如 say) 是过去时态,引语中的谓语也要用过去时态:

1)She said:“They are very fond of sports.”

She said that they were very fond of sports.

2)“I'll go over the grammar lesson once again,”he said.

He said he would go over the grammer lesson once again.

3)Mary said:“I have read up to page 25.”

Mary said she had read up to page 25.

4)“I bought the book at a second hand book shop,”she said.

She said that she had bought the book at a second hand book shop.

2.人称代词和物主代词要作相应的调整:

1)“I've just got a letter from my sister,”Jane said.

Jane said she had just got a letter from her sister.

2)“We'll come to see you again when we have time,”our friends said.

Our friends said that they would come to see us again when they had time.

3.某些时间和地点状语要作相应的调整:

1)Joe said:“I arrived yesterday (this morning, two days ago).”

Joe said he arrived the day before (that morning, two days before).

2)“I'll be in the office tonight (tomorrow),” she said.

She said she would be in the office that night (the next day).

3)“I'll be here all day,”he said.

He said he would be there all day.

特殊问句、一般问句、祈使句如何从直接引语变为间接引语。

在把特殊问句变为间接引语的时候,除了要把时态、代词、状语作相应的调整外,还要注意把问句的语序改为陈述句的语序,例如:

1) “What are you looking for, Tom?” Anne asked.

Anne asked Tom what he was looking for.

2) “Where did you leave the key?” Henry asked.

Henry asked me where I had left the key.

如果引述的是一般问句,除上述各点外,还要注意在间接引语前用连词 whether 或 if, 例如:

1) “Have you finished reading the book, George?” Betty asked.

Betty asked whether (if) George had finished reading the book.

2) Harry asked me: “Do you know where Jane lives?”

Harry asked me whether (if) I knew where Jane lived.

如果引述的是祈使句,要用 ask one to, tell one to, order one to 等词组,三者代表不同的口气(请求,让,命令),如何选用要根据原话口气决定。 例如:

1) “Don't be late again, Frank,” the teacher said.

The teacher told Frank not to be late again. (命令)

2) “Please pass me that dictionary,” she said.

She asked me to pass her that dictionary. (请求)

雷州话中的读音也和普通话一样有书面和口语两种,但口语在雷州话平常交际中十分普遍例如“黄”就有两种读音,分别为“ui5”(口语)和“huang5”。杨庆蕙主编《实用现代汉语语法》 刘月华等主编《现代汉语》中册 张志公主编《语法讲义》 朱德熙《对外汉语教学语法探索》 吕文华{二类}:《现代汉语语法研究》 朱德熙《汉语口语语法》 赵元任《语法和语法教学》 张志公主编《教学语法轮集枣全国语法和语法教学讨论会论文汇编》 张志公主编《汉语析句方法讨论集》 张志公主编《描写语法学初探》 徐思意《语法修辞讲话》 吕叔湘。一个朋友考雅思,然后口语考试环节,他拿到那个口语陈述题就习惯性的说了句“我日”。

2)时态的变化 如主句的谓语动词是一般过去时,直接引语变间接引语时,从句的谓语动词在时态方面要作相应的变化。如主句的谓语动词是现在时,从句的时态则无需变化。时态的变化例句 直接引语间接引语一般现在时→一般过去时He said, “I'm afraid I can't finish this work.”He said that he was afraid he couldn't finish that work.现在进行时→过去进行时He said, “I'm using theknife.”He said that he was using the knife.现在完成时→过去完成时She said, “I have not heard from him since May.”She said that she had not heard from him since May.一般过去时→过去完成He said, “I came to help you.”He said that he had come to help me.过去完成时不变He said, “I had finished my homework before supper.”He said that he had finished his homework before supper.3)指示代词、时间状语、地点状语和动词的变化:变化例句直接引语间接引语this-that 这个-那个She said, “Iwill come this morning." She said that she would go that morning.these-those这些=那些He said, "These books are mine."He said that those books were his.now-then现在-那时He said, "It is nine 0'clock now."He said that it was nine 0'clock then.today-that day今天-那天He said, "I haven't seen her today."He said that he hadn't seen her that day.yesterday-the day before昨天-前一天she said, "I went there yesterday."She said that she had gone there the day before.tomorrow-the next(following) day明天-第二天she said, "I'll go there tomorrow."She said that she would go there the next (following) day.here-there这里-那里come-go来-去注:(1)直接引语如果是客观真理,变为间接引语时,时态不变。

5.终止性动词可以用于when引导的时间状语从句中,但不可以用于while引导的时间状语从句中.when表示的时间是"点时间"(从句谓语动词用终止性动词),也可以是"段时间"(从句谓语动词用延续性动词).而while表示的是一个较长的时间或过程,从句谓语动词用延续性动词.如:。1.延续性动词可以用于现在完成时,其完成时态可与表示"段时间"的状语连用.表示"段时间"的短语有:for two years,during the past three years,since last year,how long等.如:i have learned english since i came here.自从我来到这儿就学英语了.。may be是两个词,为情态动词may(可以,可能)+联系动词 be英文直接引用,意为”可能是”. maybe 是一个词,意为”也许”,为副词,通常放在句首英文直接引用,做状语,不可作表语. may 是情态动词,"可以可能",may +动词原形 如果后面有动词原形用may. 4. i am sorry to hear that.。



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